Mozambique is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world. It is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa which is considered at high risk from all three climate hazards: drought, floods and coastal storms. The majority of Mozambicans inhabit rural areas which are prone to weather and climate shocks, they have low adaptive capacities, and they are heavily reliant on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and livestock. Droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones pose a particular threat to coastal communities, transport infrastructure, and livelihoods that are dependent upon rain-fed agriculture, and floods in particular have been prevalent over the past few years. As an example, in 2015, the country was hit by heavy rains and floods in the central and northern regions of the country, and at least 35,000 houses were destroyed partially or completely. Projections indicate that climate change impacts in Mozambique will increase in both frequency and intensity.
Mozambique’s National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (NCCAMS) (Estratégia Nacional de Adaptação e Mitigação de Mudanças Climáticas - ENAMMC) was approved during the 39th Session of the Council of Ministers in Maputo on 13 November 2012. It represents a turning point in Mozambique’s response to the challenges of climate change, setting out strategic actions to be implemented to ensure a more prosperous, resilient, and sustainable future for the country.
The strategy identifies the key areas and actions to reduce the severity of the impacts of climate change through adaptation measures and the reduction of climate risks, and to create benefits through mitigation and low-carbon development opportunities.The ENAMMC is a long-term strategic planning document (2013-2025) and is being implemented through Climate Change Action Plans (PAMCs) over the following periods: 2013-2014; 2015-2019; 2020-2025. The strategy consists of three pillars:
(i) adaptation and disaster risk management
(ii) mitigation and low carbon development, and
(iii) cross-cutting aspects.
Its specific objectives are:
(i) that Mozambique becomes resilient to the impacts of climate change, reducing climate risks to people and property to a minimum, and restoring and ensuring the rational use and the protection of natural and physical capital;